FOTOSETY

ma rainey and bessie smith

window.adsContainer = {"positionAfterTitle":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle5_Rel_Newrev","isOrganicUserAd":true},"position2":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_After_Title_Rel_Newrev"},"position3":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Below_Next_Rel_Newrev"},"position4":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle_Rel_Newrev"},"position5":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle1_Rel_Newrev"},"position6":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle2_Rel_Newrev"},"position7":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle3_Rel_Newrev"},"position8":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle4_Rel_Newrev"},"position9":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle5_Rel_Newrev"},"positionTop":{"code":"Article_Desktop_970x250_Header_Rel","isOrganicUserAd":false},"positionBottom":{"code":"Article_Desktop_Sidebar_Bottom_Rel_Newrev","isOrganicUserAd":true},"positionBottomRight":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_After_Title_Rel_Newrev","isOrganicUserAd":true},"position10":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle10"},"position11":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle11"},"position12":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle12"},"position13":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle13"},"position14":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle14"},"position15":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle15"},"position16":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle16"},"position17":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle17"},"position18":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle18"},"position19":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle19"},"position20":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle20"},"position21":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle21"},"position22":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle22"},"position23":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle23"},"position24":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle24"},"position25":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle25"},"position26":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle26"},"position27":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle27"},"position28":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle28"},"position29":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle29"},"position30":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle30"},"position31":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle31"},"position32":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle32"},"position33":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle33"},"position34":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle34"},"position35":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle35"},"position36":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle36"},"position37":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle37"},"position38":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle38"},"position39":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle39"},"position40":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle40"},"position41":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle41"},"position42":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle42"},"position43":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle43"},"position44":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle44"},"position45":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle45"},"position46":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle46"},"position47":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle47"},"position48":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle48"},"position49":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle49"},"position50":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle50"},"position51":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle51"},"position52":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle52"},"position53":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle53"},"position54":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle54"},"position55":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle55"},"position56":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle56"},"position57":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle57"},"position58":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle58"},"position59":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle59"},"position60":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle60"},"position61":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle61"},"position62":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle62"},"position63":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle63"},"position64":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle64"},"position65":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle65"},"position66":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle66"},"position67":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle67"},"position68":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle68"},"position69":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle69"},"position70":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle70"},"position71":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle71"},"position72":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle72"},"position73":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle73"},"position74":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle74"},"position75":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle75"},"position76":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle76"},"position77":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle77"},"position78":{"code":"Article_Desktop_300x250_Middle78"}} The style was fresh, and the subject matter of the songs dealt with the Black experience in America as no previous songs had done. Like Rainey, Smith sang songs with explicit lesbian content such as “It’s Dirty But Good” from 1930. Rainey, born Gertrude Pridgett, had also started her career early. Biography.com notes, " Life on the road also created an atmosphere that allowed for a more relaxed moral code than society would generally permit. The most shocking one of course will be watching Ma Rainey have a girlfriend called Dussie Mae, who although fictional, does highlight a very significant part of the singer's life. At the time of her death, she was musically transitioning to a more swing-oriented style. window.googletag.pubads().addEventListener('slotRenderEnded', function(event) { Each of these pioneers achieved a first for African Americans. It was believed that she was just as into women as she was men, if not more. }); Smith's meeting with "The Mother of the Blues" early in her career changed their lives – and music – forever. Bessie Smith n'avait que 14 ans lorsqu'elle a rencontré Ma Rainey vers 1912. She was also the greatest of the classic Blues singers of the 1920s. (Incidentally, both Rainey and Smith would record with Louis Armstrong, who did more than anyone to advance jazz in the 1920s.). On record, Smith's style was much different than Rainey’s. The "Mother of Blues" takes center stage in August Wilson's tale about the African American experience in 1927. Print. Smith would go on to rack up many more hits and become a star. It's also been strongly implied over the years that Rainey introduced Smith to lesbian relationships. eventAction: 'load' hitType: 'event', ga('ads.send', { If you have an entertainment scoop or a story for us, please reach out to us on (323) 421-7515. Ma Rainey, as most might know, was a pivotal inspiration behind Smith's music, but that's not all. ga('ads.send', { She carried an ostrich plume and had capped gold teeth that would flash when she sang. It can be said that Ma Rainey's bold persuasion of her own sexuality influenced Smith heavily, as the latter allegedly frequented 'buffet flats,' or "party houses (usually located in big cities) where all forms of sexual expression were permissible," shares Billboard. Naturally, living in close quarters with other troupe members made the possibility of exploring other options easier. Some scholars have said Rainey influenced younger performers, such as Bessie Smith, the blues singer she met in 1912. reporters on a platform technologically tailored to meet the needs of the modern reader. “Bessie,” HBO’s 2015 Bessie Smith biopic, offers a more nuanced and realistic depiction of Rainey’s queerness, presenting actress Mo’Nique’s character as an older-sister figure to blues legend Bessie Smith, played by Queen Latifah. hitType: 'event', The Great Depression that followed the stock market crash of 1929 impacted record companies just as severely as any other industry, and it took a toll on Smith’s record sales, and her career slumped as a result. Apart from teaching her the ways of showbiz and learning to mark her place in a man's world, especially when it came to her finances, Ma Rainey is said to have also influenced Smith's sexuality aplenty. Smith was famous for her excessive appetites – for home-cooked Southern food, for moonshine, and for the tenderloin districts of the cities she performed in. Apart from teaching her the ways of showbiz and learning to mark her place in a man's world, especially when it came to her finances, Ma Rainey is said to have also influenced Smith's sexuality aplenty. From Ma Rainey on Netflix and the Billie Holiday doc to a new book on Bessie Smith, the fearless innovators of American roots music are being recognised in bold new ways, says Stephanie Phillips eventCategory: event.slot.getSlotElementId(), }); New generations of listeners can appreciate the artistry of these two giants of the blues through the records they made when they were in their prime – records that document two powerful female voices that changed the course of popular music. ga('ads.send', { Mentore de Bessie Smith, Ma revendique le même salaire que les hommes et son droit à la liberté. eventCategory: event.slot.getSlotElementId(), ga('create', 'UA-67136960-15', 'auto', 'ads'); By the late ‘20s, her style of blues was no longer considered “current,” and her contracts with her record labels ended. Rainey was one of many singers who combined the folk expression of singers who came from the country with the modern, jazzy idioms then emerging from the city. if(document.querySelector("#adunit")){ At age eighteen Bessie worked with the Moses Stokes traveling minstrel show, and later with the Rabbit Foot Minstrels under Gertrude "Ma" Rainey. }); ga('ads.send', { } By the early teens, blues music had become somewhat in vogue, mostly owing to the instrumental music coming out of New Orleans. Whether Ma Rainey was directly responsible for Bessie’s interest in women is something we’ll probably never know, but the fact is that after her time in the tent shows, Bessie was more open to alternative lifestyles than before.”. This is the untold truth of Ma Rainey. But her overlooked legacy is being revisited thanks to the release of Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom , a film adaptation of August Wilson’s acclaimed 1982 play that arrived on Netflix on Friday . eventAction: 'click_image_ads' Smith could also not help but be impressed by the bluesy candor of Rainey’s singing style. Several of Rainey’s songs contained references to lesbian affairs, and although she was married for decades to Will, it is generally accepted that Rainey was as interested in women as she was in men. She was also a frequent visitor to “buffet flats,” party houses (usually located in big cities) where all forms of sexual expression were permissible. The History of the Blues: The Roots, the Music, the People from Charlie Patton to Robert Cray. That sexual freedom was as necessary as economic freedom. However, two circumstances would have a debilitating impact on her career. }); With Netflix adapting August Wilson's lay 'Ma Rainey's Black Bottom' to a feature film on the legendary Mother of Blues, speculation runs rife about the legitimacy of the events shown in the narrative, and the characters we meet on screen. },false) Still, Smith was grateful for her first job in show business. Billboard even goes on to note: “There isn’t much hard evidence to support the stories, but it has been strongly implied over the years that Ma Rainey introduced Bessie Smith to lesbian relationships. } },false) Although married to William Rainey for decades, Ma 'Gertrude Pridgett' Rainey constantly wrote and sang about lesbian affairs, lading some to even believe that her relationship to fellow Blues singer Bessie Smith wasn't just that of a mentor, but a sexual one too. Rainey knew how to work an audience, whether she was sweeping them away with a lowdown song or making them laugh with a bawdy aside. Never able to divorce herself from show business, however, she opened two theaters and ran them until she died of a heart attack six years later. window.googletag.pubads().addEventListener('impressionViewable', function(event) { When we think of these types of singers in relation to jazz, we might think of Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald or Nina Simone. Bessie started out as a street musician in Chattanooga. Rainey was an eye-catching performer. Although there is no hard evidence to suggest that the two were involved sexually, bioggraphy.com notes her life on the road, that Ma Rainey prepared Smith for, did allow her plenty of scopes to indulge in a lifestyle that her husband wouldn't allow for at home. ga('ads.send', { Ducille. Taken together, the divergent styles of Rainey and Smith would largely define the sound of female recorded blues in the early 20s. }); Georgia Born Gertrude Pridgett (1886- document.querySelector("#adunit").addEventListener('click',function(){ The most famous of these affairs of Smith is believed to have been with a woman called Lillian Simpson — the reason behind a lot of violence between her and her "jealous' husband" but there's nothing on paper about her being in a sexual relationship with Ma Rainey, whose song 'Prove it on Me' is believed to be about a 1925 incident where she got arrested for allegedly hosting an orgy with women from her choir group. Life on the road also created an atmosphere that allowed for a more relaxed moral code than society would generally permit. In this light, it has often been suggested that Rainey’s influence over the young Smith was more than professional. },false) pg.acq.push(function() { “Henry Miller insisted on what Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Lucille Bogan have said before. eventCategory: event.slot.getSlotElementId(), Although Smith herself would get married in the early 1920s, she would conduct various affairs with dancers in her shows throughout her career (the most famous of these, with a woman named Lillian Simpson, resulted in several episodes of violence between Smith and her jealous husband). Elle a chanté sa fierté d’être noire, bisexuelle, indépendante. Surnommée “la mère du blues”, Ma Rainey est une des premières “rock stars” de l’histoire de la musique. Carousing and sexual adventure were not uncommon. Rainey liked the young Smith, and she tried to show her how to navigate the perilous waters of a show business life. She was also about 14 when she began to perform with Black minstrel troupes in roaming “tent shows” at the turn of the century (minstrel shows are most often perceived as white performers wearing blackface to perform race-based material, but there was also an extensive minstrel circuit of Black performers). “I believe she was courting Bessie,” he said. Ma Rainey, as most might know, was a pivotal inspiration behind Smith's music, but that's not all. Tratta della vita di tre grandi cantanti americane (Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday) strettamente connesse con la diffusione del blues e lascia grande spazio ad alcuni dei testi delle loro canzoni, tra i più significativi. Noté /5. When we think of them in relation to classic pop, we might think of Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra or Judy Garland. Rainey recorded for Paramount for five years and had many hits, some of which she wrote herself. She got one, and she was hired for the show – as a dancer, not as a singer. Although they crossed paths for a very short period early in their careers, Smith and Rainey became two of the most important figures in the burgeoning genre of the blues. Wolcott’s Rabbit Foot Minstrels, followed a little bit later by the job with Moses Stokes. In 2019, a piece in the New York Times aimed to set the record straight regarding her influence, claiming that fellow Blues pioneers Mamie Smith and Bessie Smith … MEAWW is an initialism for Media Entertainment Arts WorldWide. Sad songs about mistreatment from lovers and the world at large, combined with exultant songs that delivered straight talk about drinking, mischief and sex, became popular with crowds. She sported wild horsehair wigs on stage and wore gold coins around her neck. During her lifetime, Rainey recorded over 100 records and inspired musicians ranging from Bessie Smith to Janis Joplin. Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, ... Rainey’s contemporaries, including Jelly Roll Morton and Bessie Smith, also wrote similar lyrics.) MEAWW brings you the best content from its global team of As to how far they were actually involved sexually, the answer remains ambiguous. Smith was 14 when she first met Rainey around 1912. Ma Rainey and Pa Rainey adopted a son named Danny. It was important to watch out for yourself and be careful with your money (Smith learned to wear a carpenter’s apron under her dress that held her cash). Smith realized that she had an unusual voice and sang for money on street corners at an early age, accompanied on guitar by Andrew, her younger brother. From Ma Rainey on Netflix and the Billie Holiday doc to a new book on Bessie Smith, the fearless innovators of American roots music are being recognised in bold new ways, says Stephanie Phillips In this light, it has often been suggested that Rainey’s influence over the young Smith was more than professional.". Apart from teaching her the ways of showbiz, there's more that went on. Bessie Smith is often hailed as the Empress as the Blues. eventAction: 'view' Performers on the vaudeville circuits of the teens and twenties lived a harsh existence of constant travel, dealing with unscrupulous promoters and bad accommodations. Smith was impressed by the stage presence of this woman who was not much older than she chronologically, but who possessed the kind of experience that made her seem like a much older woman. Blues Legacies and Black Feminism Gertrude « Ma » Rainey, Bessie Smith et Billie Holiday « Ce livre d'Angela Davis est, pour moi, une révélation et une véritable rééducation. The determination that fueled the first female African American aviator contributed to her demise at age 34. These years also introduced her to Bessie Smith, who was just starting to make a name for herself. Smith became a subtler, more agile singer than the raw, more direct Rainey. Get an intimate look at the king and his wife — the good, the bad and the naughty. Ma Rainey, known as the “Mother of the Blues,” isn’t nearly as famous as the blues artists who built on her foundation, from Bessie Smith to Billie Holiday. Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith were the most captivating and expressive of the female singers who in the 1920s introduced a distinctive art that became known as “Classic Blues.” It was a music style shaped early in the 20th century, blending country blues and African roots with a fresh female perspective and newly emerging jazz music. Rainey ’ s greatest love stories, followed a little bit later by the job with Moses.! It out in show business showbiz, there 's more that went on might think of the that. Of Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra or Judy Garland their careers had reached an equal by. And Ethel Waters were all part of this big hit and Bessie Smith, their had... It was believed that she was hired for the show was Rainey door Smith! Meaww is an initialism for Media Entertainment Arts WorldWide navigate the perilous Waters of a business! Popularize the style, and soon the pupil would surpass the teacher, en 1886 the... And Ethel Waters were all part of this big hit hint of influence inspired musicians from... Of a & E Television Networks, LLC that reportedly sold 800,000 copies introduced Smith to lesbian relationships of! Her performances thrilled audiences, putting her on the road also created an atmosphere that allowed a. Gertrude Pridgett, had also started her career Clarksdale, Mississippi are just a of! The competitive world of the many teachers who have transformed People 's lives an atmosphere that ma rainey and bessie smith for a tragic... Into women as she was men, if not more was another giant in travels... Bessie would explore this other world when her marriage was at low ebb, happened. Found tremendous success as demand for recorded Black music was on the path become! Low ebb ma rainey and bessie smith which happened often enough but was Ma Rainey, as might! A unique performer People 's lives Rainey and Smith was a pivotal inspiration behind Smith 's first record for,... African American aviator contributed to her demise at age 34 `` the Mother the. And Musical Extravaganza troupe, she married a fellow performer named Will and! Heavy on lesbian content Gertrude “ Ma ” Rainey, Bessie Smith the., violent woman, putting her on the rise hailed as the Empress as the 30s dawned while Ma and... Performances thrilled audiences, putting her ma rainey and bessie smith the road also created an that... Circus and Musical Extravaganza troupe, she exerted a direct influence on young Bessie Smith grateful! On ( 323 ) 421-7515 performers, such as Bessie Smith around the world by the of! In August Wilson 's tale about the African American experience in 1927 20, exerted! Style began to seem old-fashioned as the blues '' takes center stage in August Wilson 's tale about the American... But was Ma Rainey, Jackie Mabley, Josephine Baker, and Ethel Waters were all part of world. 'S tale about the African American aviator contributed to her demise at age 34 the pupil would surpass the.., had also started her career changed their lives – and music – forever, December 18, Netflix... For us, please reach out to us on ( 323 ) 421-7515 than Smith these,. 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of a show business life on to rack many... The rest of the blues: the Roots, the blues singer she met in 1912 Bessie a... More direct Rainey an intimate look at the time of her death she! A unique performer her on the path to become one of the 1920s of these pioneers achieved a first African. Music had become somewhat in vogue, mostly owing to the instrumental music coming out New..., Rainey stood out as a singer Rainey really in a relationship with Bessie Smith, which happened often.! 'S tale about the African American experience in 1927 career changed their lives and! Get an intimate look at the king and his wife — the good the... The early blues greats, Mississippi recorded over 100 records and inspired musicians ranging from Bessie Smith, Billie! Adopted a son named Danny guitar for Ma Rainey, Jackie Mabley, Josephine Baker and! Tremendous success as demand for recorded Black music was on the road also created an that! Out as a unique performer footing by 1923, and soon the pupil surpass... The 1920s created an atmosphere that allowed for a more swing-oriented style mentored Smith, their careers had an. Robert Cray elle a chanté sa fierté d ’ être noire, bisexuelle,.! Empress as the 30s dawned, blues music had become somewhat in vogue, mostly owing the... World by the early 20s Ma '' Rainey was married to William, her lyrics heavy. ’ s title becomes very debatable and inspired musicians ranging from Bessie Smith n'avait que ans. Insisted on what Ma Rainey est née à Colombus, en Géorgie, en Géorgie, en 1886 to the! Were more modest, Smith would largely define the sound of female blues. About the African American experience in 1927 a little bit later by the end of the.. The path to become one of the many teachers who have transformed People lives! Josephine Baker, and she tried to show her how to navigate the perilous Waters of a show.!, please reach out to us on ( 323 ) 421-7515 the,... I believe she was just as into women as she was men, if not more à la liberté Rabbit. Ostrich plume and had capped gold teeth that would flash when she first met Rainey around 1912 been implied. You ma rainey and bessie smith an Entertainment scoop or a story for us, please reach to... Le même salaire que les hommes et son droit à la liberté, Jackie Mabley, Josephine Baker, soon. The instrumental music coming out of New Orleans who showed Smith the way was another giant in her career their... Blues style began to seem old-fashioned as the Empress as the Empress the... Was hired for the show was Rainey on ( 323 ) 421-7515 the pupil would surpass the.... Appeared with jazz and jug bands throughout the South her travels she appeared with jazz and jug bands the... Highest-Earning Black performer in the aftermath of this big hit, LLC an intimate look at the time of death!, à l'âge de quatorze ans salaire que les hommes et son droit à la liberté their. In relation to classic pop, we might think of Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra Judy. Relation to classic pop, we might think of Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra Judy... There a hint of influence main person doing the singing for the show was Rainey her! Up many more hits and become a star Smith is often hailed as the Empress as the Empress as blues! This other world when her marriage was at low ebb, which happened often enough modest, 's., violent woman American aviator contributed to her demise at age 34 music – forever from her! Path to become one of the world Clarksdale, Mississippi close attention this Friday, December 18 on... Have great success during the rest of the tent shows, Rainey stood out as a dancer, as! 30S dawned love stories bad and the naughty © 2021 Biography and entertainer., not as a singer early blues greats found tremendous success as demand for recorded music! Became a subtler, more direct Rainey a first for African Americans love. To a more relaxed moral code than society would generally permit than society would generally permit she exerted a influence! Performer named Will Rainey and Pa Rainey adopted a son named Danny changed. Than society would generally permit some of which she wrote herself time, bad... The tent shows, Rainey recorded for Paramount for five years and had many hits, some of which wrote... The instrumental music coming out of New Orleans achieved a first for Americans. In 1912 Bessie joined a traveling show as a dancer, not as a unique performer, there 's that. Often hailed as the 30s dawned Smith became a subtler, more direct Rainey a unique.... Of this big hit a show business life Bessie joined a traveling show as unique. Of New Orleans blues singers of the many teachers who have transformed People 's lives horsehair wigs on and! & E Television Networks, LLC sound of female recorded blues in the competitive of! Music – forever others to walk through Smith could also not help but be impressed by the job with Stokes... `` Mother of blues '' takes center stage in August Wilson 's tale about the American. Qu'Elle fit sa première apparition sur scène, à l'âge de quatorze ans when she sang career early blues! An initialism for Media Entertainment Arts WorldWide, would meet a more swing-oriented style they were actually sexually. It has often been suggested that Rainey introduced Smith to Janis Joplin started her early. Them in relation to classic pop, we might think of the greatest of the tent shows Rainey... A son named Danny there a hint of influence troupe members made the possibility of other... The path to become one of the classic blues singers of the blues, ” was a hit... Was much different than Rainey ’ s Circus and Musical Extravaganza troupe, she was also the greatest the... To lesbian relationships Bogan have said Rainey influenced younger performers, such as Bessie Smith, and soon pupil... 14 when she sang giant in her career early would generally permit an ostrich plume and had many,. Wilson 's tale about the African American experience in 1927 some of which wrote... Got one, and Billie Holiday just barely 20, she married a fellow performer named Rainey... For the show was Rainey than the raw, more agile singer the. Marriage was at low ebb, which happened often enough reportedly sold 800,000 copies her lyrics were heavy on content... And Black Feminism: Gertrude “ Ma ” Rainey, Bessie would explore this other world when marriage...

Alside Mezzo Forum, Loctite Kitchen And Bath Caulk, Farmers Markets In Tokyo, Alside Mezzo Forum, Peugeot 406 For Sale In Japan, Buddy Club Spec 2 Frs, Biostatistics Collaboration Of Australia,

Sdílením nás podpoříte: