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17.1.2 Key Questions and Cross-cutting Issues This chapter addresses how ecosystem changes affect cultural and amenity services and thereby humanwell-being. Others argue that a majority of species are 'redundant' in the sense that their removal would not impair ecosystem … The importance or “value” of ecosystems is viewed and expressed differently by different disciplines, cultural conceptions, philosophical views, and schools of … Thus, future studies ^An Atlas of Ecosystem Markets in … Supporting and habitat services refer to the ability of ecosystems to give habitat for migratory species and to support the viability of gene-pools.This is possible thanks to: • Primary reproduction • Nutrient and seed dispersal Cultural services are the benefits ecosystem services bring to humans. Soil formation, habitat, nutrient & water cycling. Cultural ecosystem services are one of the four key components identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and United Kingdom National Ecosystem Assessment, along with provisioning, regulating and supporting services. Ecosystem services are the benefits natural ecosystems provide to people. Heritage values of landscapes can be used to assess cultural ecosystem services. forest biodiversity and ecosystem services are assessed by Freer-Smith and Webber (2017), highlighting the urgent need to mitigate the risk of future invasions and to increase our ability to manage those that have already occurred. This diversity means that there are no easy management solutions, and management is not a technical, mechanical process but one that must necessarily incorporate a variety of competing interest groups and views. Services provided by forests cover a wide range of ecological, political, economic, social and cultural considerations and processes. Whether or not people are familiar with the term, the concept resonates with nearly every human being, though precisely what resonates varies between people. Ecosystem services (ESs) are considered those tangible and intangible benefits that ecosystems provide to society. 3 Ecosystem Services from Forests The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) concluded that since about 1950, 60% of all ES had declined as a direct result of the growth of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industries, and urban settlement, mainly through the increase in The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), a major UN-sponsored effort to analyze the impact of human actions on ecosystems and human well-being, identified four major categories of ecosystem services: provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Qualitative assessments of CES can be made using existing methods from the field of conservation. In high biodiversity forests this complexity allows organisms to adapt to continually changing environmental conditions and to maintain ecosystem functions. In addition, there is a lack of economic value estimates for some ecosystem services. Examples … Highlights Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) can be combined with cultural landscape research. Ecosystem services are all the processes and outputs that nature provides us with. People have cultural and spiritual associations with the forest, which may be formalised or personal. Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are “ecosystems' contributions to the nonmaterial benefits … that people derive from human‐ecological relations” (Chan et al., 2011, p. 206). Examples of Supporting services. Ecosystem Services are commonly defined as benefits people obtain from ecosystems.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment – a four-year United Nations assessment of the condition and trends of the world’s ecosystems - categorizes ecosystem services as:. Besides the Madrid Resolution, also other commitments related to forest ecosystem services were adopted by previous Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe. Biomimetics, ecotourism, books, films & animal assisted therapy. We found that these forests serve as a pool of 22 ecosystem services under four MEA categories of provisioning (9), regulating (8), supporting (2), and cultural (3) services. Cultural ecosystem services (CES), usually defined as the intangible and nonmaterial benefits ecosystems provide, have been relatively neglected by researchers and policy-makers compared to provisioning, supporting, and regulating services. Temporal and spatial drivers of change need to be integrated into the analysis of CES. 9 terms. Forests also provide renewable raw material, food, and recreational possibilities. areas (except cultural ecosystem services in cultural landscapes) are not included in any of the reports. Rapid climate warming projected for the boreal zone may change the provision of these ecosystem services. Supporting Services: Examples include new soil formation, carbon sequestration, nutrient and waste recycling, and pollination; Cultural Services: The educational, aesthetic, cultural heritage values of ecosystems, including tourism and recreation; Traditionally, most ecosystem services are considered free benefits to society. Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services. These include provisioning services (food, water), regulating services (waste water treatment, pollution control), supporting services (shelter), and cultural services (recreation and tourism). The natural processes that maintain other ecosystem services. the value of forest ecosystem services in a green economy. The ecosystem services (ES) framework was developed to articulate and measure the benefits humans receive from ecosystems. 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